METHODOLOGY RESEARCHES HISTORY OF MILITARY MEDICINE

Milevskaya J.

Relevance of the theme is determined by a significant intensification of work on the study and development problems of the history of military medicine. The value of research in this area at the present stage of scientific development is due to fundamental qualitative changes in the means of warfare, caused a significant restructuring of the organizational structure of the army, forms and ways of warfare which may lead to a new pathology wartime and fundamental changes in attitudes to health maintenance organizations troops. Therefore there is a need for careful consideration of past experience knowledge that equips the history of military medicine. It provides rich material for theoretical generalizations and practical implications of disclosure regularities and trends in the development of the principles of medical support, and ways to predict the future direction of military medical science.

The aim of research is attempt to analyze some of the issues of methodology, which show how to approach the study of the connections and relations in the history of military medicine, as they understand, evaluate, and so on.

Material and methods. Methodology of the history of military medicine is composed of three inseparable and, at the same time, independent parts: general, special and concrete [2, p.24]. Common part is the philosophical foundation. The special part of the fundamental provisions of medical science is including: the history of military medicine, military science, as well as various military-medical disciplines that are used to explain, events and facts, relating to the history of military medicine. Third part, specific, mainly comprises special methods and techniques, use of which is due to the specificity of the subject research [1, p.115].

Results and their discussion. Philosophical methods serve as means of entry into essence of military historical and medical events, contribute more clear focus on what the researcher should first pay attention to the direction in which to use the entire arsenal of knowledge to uncover laws of development of processes and phenomena in the history of military medicine. Thus, exploring the state of the medical service and the efficiency of medical support in a specific military campaign or war, it is necessary to proceed from the determining influence of the complex objective factors leading place among which owns the character of the political system society, the level of economic development, science and technology [2, p. 24]. At the same time accounted the degree of direct influence on the organization of health services and medical support principles of development of military affairs - to improve the means of warfare, the development of military theory and practice.

To scientific methods of research can be referred historical and logical [2, p.24]. The essence of the historical method is to objectively evaluate the occurrence of a phenomenon in the history and dynamics of its development. So the study of systems of medical evacuation support for the troops necessary to consistently treat stage of their development in the direction from the previous to the next. This approach assumes that compulsory registration of public and social factors, health status, and military medicine for which was developed and used in practice this or that system of treatment and evacuation of the wounded and sick.

Logical method assumes use of several techniques: analysis and synthesis, comparison and analogy, abstraction and generalization, etc. The scope and nature of their use are determined by the specific goals and objectives of the study. One of the basic logical techniques should be considered as a comparison. Its essence is to identify similarities and differences between events and phenomena by comparing them. This method should be used not only to establish the above characteristics, but also as a method or evidence substantiate the conclusion [2, p.25].
The considered methods are closely related to the method of abstraction - mental focusing on one or another signs of the object selected in the analysis. It should emphasize the nature of the unity of the historical and logical methods, compliance with which is mandatory for both the research process and to present its results.

Extremely high today role of the experimental method. Methods such research may be different: conducting research command post and special tactical military medical exercise, a synthesis of operational, logistical or military medical exercise on maps [1, p.134].

For today are promising mathematical methods. Without affecting the traditional methods used by the military medical statistics, mention should be made of the possibilities of constructing mathematical models capable serve as a adequate basis for solving certain problems in the history of military medicine. Mathematical modeling will allow to successfully solve a number of issues related to the assessment of value for money collection and removal of the wounded from the battlefield, surgical forces to ensure skilled care, various types of vehicles involved for the evacuation of the wounded and sick of the battles and operations [2, p.25].

The conclusion. In summary, the following main specific methods of research applied in study of the history of military medicine:

– Historical method – generalization of experience of organizing medical support in the past war by learning and critical analysis of the literature, archival documents and personal combat experience;
– Experimental method – the study of the organizational and tactical questions of medical support and methods of application of forces and assets of the medical service in artificial conditions (models), as close to the real situation of medical services;
– Mathematical methods that are used along with other methods, and accompany them wherever necessary to obtain quantitative estimates of the activity of the medical service.

Thus, it should be emphasized that these methods of learning are necessary methodological basis for the study of military historical and medical facts and events at all stages of the study. However, success in this effort will largely depend on the rational combination of these methods and the principle of their interrelation.

Reference list:

1.    Aleksanyan, I.B. Military field medicine in the years of Great Patriotic war/ I.B. Aleksanyan, M.Sh. Klopov. – М.: Medicine, 2000. – 264 p.
2.    Aleksanyan, I.B. To methodology of researches in area of history of military medicine // Soviet health protection – 1974. – Number 7. – p. 23– 26.